The theme Storms and Radiation will focus on attaining realistic simulations of the top of the atmosphere (TOA) energy budget during model development. Ensembles of short simulations combined with data assimilation techniques and observations will be used to inform parameter choices and reduce expected cloud biases. Structural limitations related to remaining sub-grid scale processes, such as cloud-microphysics and turbulent mixing, will be assessed and used to guide the development of new parametrisations of these micro and smaller-scale processes. A computationally efficient aerosol scheme designed to exploit the ability of SR-ESMs to better represent physical source and sink processes, as well as transport and interaction with cloud systems, will be developed and implemented.
This theme will study the effect of convective organization and ‘pattern-effects’ on cloud feedbacks and climate sensitivity, how clouds and precipitation affect aerosol forcing and how in turn aerosols affect the hydrological cycle through deep convection, by better representing source and sink processes, and making convection aerosol-aware, and how these processes respond to warming.